During the heyday of the Roman Republic the Senate had the constitutional governance, in the name of the People, of the robust and burgeoning city-state – SPQR.
The policy of expansion was at first deliberately gradual and steady; but it was not without its setbacks – the Carthaginian general Hannibal hauling his armoured elephants through the Alpine passes and then drawing up his army on the plains of Lombardy certainly took the Romans by surprise. At the battle of Cannae (216 BC) he soundly trounced the vastly superior Romans legions, by that time a formidable and honed fighting machine, under the command of Consuls L. Aemilius Paulus and C. Terrentius Varro and taught the Romans a valuable miltary lesson – brute force alone was not enough against the genius of a cunning and entreprising foe.
All the African elephants were killed were killed during that battle.
But the pragmatic Romans learned to adapt and eventually their armies prevailed and in due course the famed and beautiful city of Carthage, in the then fertile lands of northern Africa, was laid waste, plundered and the ground sewn with salt.
The commander of victorious Roman armies at the end the Punic wars, Publius Cornelius Scipio was descended from the gens. Cornelli – one of the six great patrician families of Rome. The Senate voted that the agnomen Africanus be added to his name and granted him a Triumph.
Picture the scene: the cheering crowds, tramp tramp of the marching legionnaires, the flowers thrown in front of the triumphant general’s chariot as, with a circlet of laurel-leaves on his brow, he enters the Forum and drives up the ramp in front of the Senate House to receive the plaudits of the Senate and the acclaim of the people!
There is another man on the chariot behind him, a slave, who at the height of the frenzy, leans forward to his master and whispers in his ear – MEMENTO MORI – remember that thou art mortal.